NASCAR Diversity Internship Program Welcomes 2016 class
DAYTONA BEACH, Fla. (May 23, 2016) – Twenty-six of the best and brightest college students from across the country and abroad ventured to Charlotte Motor Speedway this past weekend as the sport introduced the 2016 NASCAR Diversity Internship Program (NDIP) class at the NASCAR Sprint All-Star Race Weekend. The 10-week, paid program exposes multicultural college students to employment opportunities within America’s number one motorsport, whether in departments within the sanctioning body or with organizations that NASCAR partners with to enhance the fan experience both on and off the race track. Through an all-inclusive orientation experience, the interns gain a behind-the-scenes look at the business of the sport and insight into prospective careers in motorsports. " The NASCAR Diversity Internship Program has grown to become one of the most popular and attractive internships in sports," said Jim Cassidy, NASCAR senior vice president of racing operations. "This program has given talented students an opportunity to gain relevant work experience and opportunities for careers in our industry since 2000." NDIP continues to grow in popularity year over year. The key to that growth is the ongoing support of industry partners. Companies such as International Speedway Corporation, Roush Fenway Racing , Rev Racing, Daytona International Speedway , Octagon and Taylor have been longstanding supporters of NDIP. Recent partners include Toyota, Switch and Pocono Raceway . These valued partners increase the number of internship opportunities for young talent and contribute to the program's overall success. Interns will work in multiple departments including in the areas of engineering, finance, marketing, licensing and public relations. In addition to receiving hand-on experience, the interns will also participate in professional development workshops, networking events and volunteer opportunities throughout their internship experience. Victoria Kim, a recent graduate of Penn State, participated in the program last summer. Kim also received the NASCAR Diversity Outstanding Intern Award at the 2016 NASCAR Diversity Awards and was recently hired at NASCAR. "The NASCAR Diversity Internship Program was an incredible opportunity to get a hands-on, behind-the-scenes look at NASCAR," Kim said. "NDIP was a stepping stone and helped me get to where I am today, a full-time employee in the Daytona office for the Touring Series Racing Operations. I am grateful to have been a part of the NDIP class of 2015 and am thankful for the opportunity to pursue my dreams." More than 300 interns have participated in the NDIP since its inception, and many secured full-time jobs in motorsports following their internships. Recent graduates have found roles at Phoenix International Raceway , Richard Petty Motorsports , event marketing agency Switch , and many other companies tied to the industry. Several NDIP alumni are now employed at NASCAR within multiple business units, including: Brandon Thompson, director, racing operations; Marvin Aylor Jr., manager, marketing; Lauren Houston, senior account executive, multicultural development; Kathryn Lee, manager, events; Jusan Hamilton, senior account executive, industry operations; Ade Herbert, senior coordinator, social media; Jason Simmons, licensing account coordinator; Victoria Kim, coordinator touring series operations and Cameron McCarty, pit road technician. "The NASCAR Diversity Internship Program has proven to be an effective pipeline for hiring top talent across the industry," said Paula Miller, NASCAR senior vice president and chief human resources officer. "We have hired several former interns who are important contributors to the sport's continued growth." The 2016 class participated in NASCAR 101 and received guided tours of the NASCAR Research & Development Center, NASCAR Hall of Fame and Charlotte Motor Speedway before watching the NASCAR Sprint All-Star Race. The class includes the following students from colleges and universities across the country:
Early release, Chase swap highlight '17 schedule
RELATED: See the full 2017 schedules here NASCAR released its 2017 national series schedules on Thursday -- months prior to the more typical fall arrival -- and among the significant news is a Chase-time swap between two of the tracks on the Cup schedule. Although the order and dates of races in NASCAR's premier series remain mostly intact, a noteworthy change involves swapping the Chase race order at Talladega Superspeedway and Kansas Speedway . For 2017, Talladega (Oct. 15) will be the second race in the Round of 12 with Kansas becoming the third -- and elimination -- race (Oct. 22) for the Round of 12. This past weekend, Talladega recorded the second-highest number of green-flag passes for the lead in the track's great history (213), and the series heads to Kansas this week for a Saturday night show with its revamped rules package. NASCAR Senior Vice President of Racing Operations Jim Cassidy caught up with reporters Thursday at Kansas Speedway , explaining the dynamics of the schedule swap and the enhancements to the Chase. Cassidy said that with the new reduced downforce package in place, driver input and a team's ability to adjust at an intermediate-sized track would play a greater role in determining eliminations. "I would say it definitely adds a different layer of pressure for the competitors; I would say it adds certainly to the weekend and to the Chase overall," Cassidy said. "But at the same time it does not take away from, on the Talladega side, what the fans are going to get. To me, it's good for the fans on either side because … no matter when you go to Talladega you're going to see a product that is quite frankly some of the most popular racing that we've got on the circuit. Now with Kansas in that spot, you add another layer of complexity to a very compelling playoff format." NASCAR credited an "unprecedented" collaboration among the industry for being able to complete and announce the upcoming 2017 schedule so early in 2016, specifically noting the importance of the five-year sanctioning agreement between NASCAR and its tracks. "Announcing the 2017 national series schedules this early in the season is another example of the collaborative spirit across the NASCAR industry," NASCAR Executive Vice President and Chief Racing Development Officer Steve O'Donnell said. "It's an exciting time in NASCAR, with some of the most intriguing racing we've seen in years. With the 2017 schedule solidified, the industry can now concentrate on the remainder of this season while planning for the future much earlier than in previous years." RELATED: Explaining the five-year agreement The other big date news is that Dover International Speedway 's spring race will be moved back a month to June 4 -- a week after the Coca-Cola 600 -- versus a date in May this year. And Michigan International Speedway 's second race returns to its traditional August timeframe -- Aug. 13. Texas Motor Speedway 's spring race will also be held on Sunday afternoon, rather than Saturday night. The Cup schedule begins with the Daytona 500 at Daytona International Speedway on Feb. 26. Its regular-season finale at Richmond is Sept. 9, with the first round of the 10-stop playoff slate scheduled for Sept. 17 at Chicagoland Speedway . The 2017 champion will be crowned at Homestead-Miami Speedway on Nov. 19. As for the NASCAR XFINITY Series and NASCAR Camping World Truck Series schedules, they will open the new season at Daytona on Feb. 25 and Feb. 24, respectively. The XFINITY Series will feature four stand-alone events -- at Iowa Speedway (July 29), Mid-Ohio (Aug. 12), Road America (Aug. 26) and Kentucky Speedway (Sept. 23). The Kentucky event opens the NASCAR XFINTY Series Chase. The Camping World Truck Series will host five stand-alone events on its 23-race schedule, including the hugely popular race at Eldora Speedway on July 19. It will kick off its postseason at New Hampshire Motor Speedway on Sept. 23. Iowa Speedway will again host an XFINITY and Camping World Truck series doubleheader on June 23-24. Contributing: Kenny Bruce in Kansas City. RELATED: Learn more about all 23 Cup tracks
Former NASCAR driver Jim Sauter dies at 71
Father of Johnny Sauter made 76 career starts in premier series Jim Sauter, a racer and father of four drivers including NASCAR Camping World Truck Series driver Johnny Sauter , died on Friday night shortly before the conclusion of the Truck event at Texas Motor Speedway , according to ThorSport Racing. He was 71. Sauter competed in 82 NASCAR national series races from 1980 to 2004, including 76 premier series starts. The native of Necedah, Wisconsin, made his final NASCAR Nationwide Series start at the Milwaukee Mile in 2002, racing against his sons Jay, Johnny and Tim. Jim Jr. followed in his father's footsteps as well. In addition to these four sons, Sauter is survived by his wife, Debbie, eight additional children, 51 grandchildren, nine great-grandchildren and two sisters. A two-time champion in the ARTGO Racing Series in the Midwest, Sauter tested International Race of Champions cars with fellow Wisconsin racers Dave Marcis and Dick Trickle. His son, Johnny, learned of his father's passing following Friday's Winstar World Casino & Resort 350. His lone win of 2014 came at Michigan International Speedway , and he acknowledged it was a special victory in his post-race comments that recalled his dad's recollections of the track. "I'm just going to relish in this win because this has been a tough, tough race track for me throughout my career," Johnny said. "My Dad always said, 'That place is easy.' But, I never felt that way. Until today, I mean when you have a truck like this -- it was just awesome." NASCAR issued the following statement on Jim Sauter's passing: "NASCAR offers its deepest condolences to the family and friends of Jim Sauter. A true racer, Jim passed on his passion and competitive spirit to his children and grandchildren. A driver himself with roots in the Midwest, his reach and impact extend across the entire sport." The racing community expressed condolences on social media with a sample included below from Sauter's former competitor Mark Martin ; fellow Wisconsin racer Roy Kenseth, father of Matt; crew chief and former IROC chassis specialist Ray Evernham and NASCAR Senior Vice President, Racing Operations Jim Cassidy. Sorry to hear Jim Sauter died. He was a really good man and a great racer. — Mark Martin (@markmartin) November 1, 2014 Thoughts and prayers go out to the Jim Sauter family today. pic.twitter.com/ydHNAQcXQT — Roy Kenseth (@roykenseth) November 1, 2014 Really sorry to hear about passing of Jim Sauter. Worked with him for many years at IROC. Crew chiefed for him at Pocono 1990 #RIP — ray evernham (@RayEvernham) November 1, 2014 Thinking about the Sauter family. Jim Sauter's contribution to stock car racing and NASCAR will be felt for many generations. Good man. — Jim Cassidy (@jfcassidy) November 1, 2014 MORE: READ: Latest Chase news PLAY: Monitor your Chase Grid Game picks WATCH: Latest NASCAR video FOLLOW LIVE: Get RaceView
NASCAR announces 'Next' class for 2016-2017
The 11 newest members of the 2016-2017 NASCAR Next class were announced Tuesday May 17, 2016.
Jones storms to bonus in new-look Dash 4 Cash
RELATED: Full race results " Series standings BRISTOL, Tenn. -- It's payday for Erik Jones , as the 19-year-old is going home with an extra-large $100,000 check for taking the first NASCAR XFINITY Series Dash 4 Cash bonus at Bristol Motor Speedway on Saturday. The race-winning Joe Gibbs Racing driver led a total of 62 of the 200 laps in the Fitzgerald Glider Kits 300 , and his victory essentially locks up a spot in the NASCAR XFINITY Series Chase. Should Jones record another Dash 4 Cash bonus in any of the three remaining Dash 4 Cash races, having two Dash 4 Cash bonuses would be the equivalent to a regular-season race win and give him a leg up on seeding when the Chase begins on Sept. 24 at Kentucky Speedway . MORE: What to know about the Dash 4 Cash "We got a really good restart and Kyle (Larson) just left the top open and we went up there and he worked pretty hard to keep us behind him," Jones said post-race. "We just kept digging and it worked out. Just an awesome feeling. I never thought we'd get our first win here at Bristol." As for what he's spending the dough on, Jones is a frugal man. "Well, we're all going to dinner so that's going to be a big bill already I can tell," Jones said. "After that, I don't know, I'll probably put it away. I don't like to buy too many things." RELATED: Jones' discusses emotional Victory Lane call Jones' JGR teammate Daniel Suarez , Richard Childress Racing driver Ty Dillon and JR Motorsports driver Justin Allgaier all qualified for the Dash 4 Cash competition by being the top two finishers among XFINITY Series regulars in the two heat races that preceded Saturday's main event, which all came down to the final restart on Lap 198. With just three laps remaining, it looked as if Suarez -- who was running the highest of the Dash 4 Cash drivers in third -- was going to be the one to hoist the cardboard check after the checkered flag fell. That was until his JGR teammate Kyle Busch spun his tires, backing up Suarez's No. 19 Toyota. "I feel like we had a top-three car all day long and we were running in the top five, top three all day," Suarez said after the race. "In the end, the outside line was the preferred line and my teammate ( Kyle Busch ) spun his tires right there at the end with old tires and I was just right there stuck in the middle on the inside and there was nothing I can do at that point." Jones came from fourth on the restart to win the race. This was Jones' first Dash 4 Cash event, as he was not eligible for the competition last season being a full-time Camping World Truck Series driver. The next Dash 4 Cash event will be the ToyotaCare 250 at Richmond International Raceway on Saturday, April 23 (12:30 p.m. ET, FS1, MRN, SiriusXM NASCAR Radio). The two heat races will be 35 laps each, with a 140-lap main event. There are a total of four Dash 4 Cash events in the 2016 season.
Final restart hinders front-runners shot at XFINITY win
RELATED: Saturday's race results " Watch the dramatic finish BRISTOL, Tenn. – Kyle Busch said it would happen eventually, and eventually arrived Saturday at Bristol Motor Speedway . The defending NASCAR Sprint Cup Series champion likely didn't expect it to happen like this. Busch had won four NASCAR XFINITY Series races this season, and Sprint Cup Series regulars had gone six-for-six entering the Fitzgerald Glider Kits 300 at Bristol. But after Busch and fellow Sprint Cup regular Kyle Larson chased one another lap after lap after lap around the high-banked half-mile track, it was series regular Erik Jones who collected the win and a $100,000 bonus from the series sponsor in its Dash 4 Cash program. Busch had said earlier this season after a typically strong performance there was no doubt teammates Jones and Daniel Suarez would eventually make their way into Victory Lane. Jones had two series wins (earned in 2015) before Saturday; Suarez is looking his first series victory. Both finish consistently in the top five. The issue for Busch at Bristol was the late restart, a three-lap dash after Ryan Reed and Mario Gosselin brought out the yellow on Lap 189 of 200. Larson chalked up the loss to the restart as well, but blamed himself. The Reed/Gosselin incident bled nine laps off the board and set up the three-lap dash. Not that more laps under green would have mattered, according to Busch, who led three times for 43 laps. "Both restarts I had today were absolutely horrendous; both times I would go to the throttle and the engine would shut off and those guys were gone," he said. "... I couldn't keep a nose on their left-rear fender or anything. "More laps obviously would have been better ... but being on that inside lane is already a disadvantage." And that doesn't bode well for Sunday's Food City 500 Sprint Cup Series race (1 p.m. ET, FOX, PRN, SiriusXM NASCAR Radio), he said. "It used to be a race track that you could race around three-wide and pass and work traffic really well and have some fun," Busch said. "Now it's just frustrating and aggravating. "It will be the top lane tomorrow. ... The race will be around the top and it will be the same frustrating single-file show tomorrow." Larson restarted for the final time in the outside lane, Busch on the inside. Jones, fourth on the restart, shot in front of Busch when the No. 18 Toyota stumbled, then raced side-by-side with Larson for the lead as they came to the white flag. "Just did a really poor job the last couple of laps," Larson said, "really disappointed in myself and probably not going to forget about this one for quite a while."
Erik Jones rallies for Bristol win, Dash 4 Cash prize
RELATED: Race results " Updated series standings BRISTOL, Tenn. – Erik Jones ' third NASCAR XFINITY Series victory was a real triple play. In the series' new Dash 4 Cash format featuring two heat races and a main event, Jones took advantage of a restart with three laps left in Saturday’s Fitzgerald Glider Kits 300 and 1) won the race, 2) earned the $100,000 Dash 4 Cash bonus and 3) stopped Joe Gibbs Racing teammate and race runner-up Kyle Busch ’s streak of four straight NASCAR national series victories. Jones, the pole winner, restarted fourth on the final restart and charged into second place behind leader Kyle Larson when Busch's No. 18 Toyota hesitated trying to pick up power in the bottom lane. Larson left the preferred top lane open through Turns 3 and 4 and Jones took advantage, taking the lead from Larson with two laps left. Busch followed his teammate into second place, but couldn't keep up with Jones on the final lap, trailing the No. 20 JGR Toyota by .418 seconds at the finish line. The runner-up result ended Busch’s prospects for a record third straight NASCAR weekend sweep. "We had a really good restart, and Kyle (Larson) just left the top open," said an elated Jones, who was battling teammate and eventual sixth-place finisher Daniel Suárez for the Dash 4 Cash bonus, a prize available only to drivers competing for the XFINITY Series championship. Suárez had the misfortune to restart third on the bottom on Lap 198 and got bottled up behind Busch as Jones charged forward in pursuit of Larson. That allowed Austin Dillon to take fourth and Justin Allgaier fifth at the finish. It's doubtful Jones could have scripted a more satisfactory ending if he’d written it himself. "I figured at some point in the year we could get a win when those guys weren't in the field, but it would be a tall task with them in the field," said Jones, who picked up his third victory in the series and his first this year. "Here at Bristol, for those two guys, this is one of their best tracks. I'm just so excited and you can tell – I'm out of breath. I wasn't working that hard. Just so excited about the win and to be here in Victory Lane and beat those guys. This is a really big day for us." Though Jones was the winner, most of the race was a battle for the top spot between Larson, who led 94 laps, and Busch, who led 43. "The two cars that were the class of the field today didn't win – oh, well," Busch said. "It's a great day for Erik Jones . He certainly stole one today. He didn't out-race the two Kyles up front, but he certainly did in the final laps that counted." Larson spent most of his time in the post-race beating himself up for leaving the top lane open for the opportunistic Jones. "I just did a really bad job on that restart – really bad," Larson said. "I knew I gave it away. I'm really disappointed in myself. I just ran half a groove too low through (Turns) 3 and 4." The two 50-lap heat races produced a pair of wire-to-wire winners, Jones and Austin Dillon , and no cautions. But the heats did establish the starting order for the 200-lap main event, as well as identify the four eligible Dash 4 Cash competitors. Jones, Allgaier (fourth in the first heat), Ty Dillon (second to his brother in the second heat) and Suárez (fourth in the second heat) took the green as the only drivers competing for the $100,000 bonus. Any driver who wins two of the four Dash 4 Cash bonuses qualifies for the Chase, but as the first XFINITY regular to win a race this year, Jones won't need the extra help.
Colossus formally takes center stage at Bristol
BRISTOL, Tenn. -- The unveiling of Colossus, the world's largest outdoor, center-hung, four-sided video screen, is the latest addition in amenities race fans can enjoy when attending NASCAR-sanctioned events at Bristol Motor Speedway . "To be able to unveil Colossus today is a neat experience and definitely one for the history books at Bristol Motor Speedway ," BMS General Manager Jerry Caldwell said Thursday during a private unveiling of the engineering marvel. The entire piece weighs approximately 700 tons and is suspended by cables attached to towers located outside the track. The screens on each side measure 68 feet wide by 30 feet high. Construction, which began last fall, was completed earlier this month. Unveiling Colossus at Bristol Motor Speedway . #gamechanger pic.twitter.com/488jeyJCBK — Jeff Wohlschlaeger (@JeffWohlschlaeg) April 14, 2016 "What Bruton and Marcus (Smith) continue to do with this place and re-invest, I mean look at this, look at the sound system," Caldwell said. "They didn't have to do that. But they wanted to do that because it's the right thing to do for the fans. They want it to be great." Officials said there are no concerns outside of those that existed for the previous scoring pylon that was anchored in the center of the .533-mile track's infield. "This thing is so over-engineered that … all those questions were asked when we were going through this process," Caldwell said. "We've had engineers from all over the world study this and peer reviews upon peer reviews of that. So we feel good about everything that's up there and having Colossus is going to be a great experience for all of us." Steve Smith , CEO of race sponsor Food City, said the new video screen "is just another of those pillars that Bristol Motor Speedway does for the race fans." BMS will host the Fitzgerald Glider Kits 300 NASCAR XFINITY Series race Saturday (first heat race at 12:30 p.m. ET, FS1, PRN) and the Food City 500 on Sunday (1 p.m. ET, FOX, PRN, SiriusXM NASCAR Radio). RELATED: Full weekend schedule at Bristol "What it does even more so than during the races is (enhance) our pre-race shows," Caldwell said. "Our pre-race shows are amazing. There have been times when it's been hard for the race fans to hear the pre-race show, to hear from the drivers and what they're saying. And we've heard from the race fans; this sound system came from the race fans. They said they wanted new speakers. Of course Marcus and Bruton answered their call. We'll see what happens with the races but I know it's going to enhance the pre-race experience tremendously." The idea for Colossus came about as officials began preparations for hosting this year's inaugural Battle at Bristol college football game between the University of Tennessee and Virginia Tech. Other similar non-racing events are being considered; Caldwell wouldn't confirm anything beyond this fall's football game, scheduled for Sept. 10. "We've had some really good conversations," he said. "No question, Bristol is already on the map for hosting world-class NASCAR events, but this is for other sporting events and entertainment events. Look at this place; it really is a colosseum. What else can we do? Colossus is the start of that."
Four Sprint Cup teams, two XFINITY teams penalized
NASCAR gave written warnings to four teams in the Sprint Cup Series on Wednesday following last weekend's action at Bristol Motor Speedway for the Food City 500 . Meanwhile, in the XFINITY Series, one team was docked practice time and another will be without its crew chief, who was suspended and fined after the team received a P3-level penalty following the Fitzgerald Glider Kits 300 at the Tennessee short track. The No. 4 Stewart-Haas Racing team for Kevin Harvick , the No. 19 Joe Gibbs Racing team for Carl Edwards and the No. 88 Hendrick Motorsports team for Dale Earnhardt Jr . all received written warnings for failing template inspection twice during pre-qualifying. The No. 6 Roush Fenway Racing team for Trevor Bayne was issued a written warning for failing laser inspection twice, pre-qualifying. The No. 33 team for Brandon Jones will lose 15 minutes of practice time at this weekend's XFINITY event at Richmond International Raceway for failing pre-race laser inspection three times at Bristol. The No. 3 XFINITY team for Ty Dillon will be without crew chief Nick Harrison, who was fined $10,000 and suspended from all NASCAR Series Championship points events through April 27 and placed on NASCAR probation through Dec. 31. The team violated sections 20.4.13 and 126.96.36.199 a, b, c, d of the NASCAR Rule Book -- spoiler extensions didn't conform to NASCAR rules specifications -- and was assesed the P3 in accordance with section 188.8.131.52.1 c.
NASCAR TV schedule: April 18-24
RELATED: Find FS1 in your area All times ET Monday, April 18 8 a.m., Empty Cup: Quest for the 1992 NASCAR Championship (re-air), FS1 8:30 a.m., NASCAR Sprint Cup Series: Food City 500 (re-air), FS1 5 p.m., NASCAR Race Hub, FS1 5:30 p.m., NASCAR America, NBCSN Tuesday, April 19 8:30 a.m., NASCAR XFINITY Series Fitzgerald Glider Kits 300 (re-air), FS1 5 p.m., NASCAR Race Hub, FS1 5:30 p.m., NASCAR America, NBCSN 6 p.m., 100,000 Cameras: Daytona (re-air), FS1 6:30 p.m., WeatherTech SportsCar Championship: Long Beach (re-air), FS1 Wednesday, April 20 5 p.m., NASCAR Race Hub, FS1 5:30 p.m., NASCAR America, NBCSN Thursday, April 21 5 p.m., NASCAR Race Hub, FS1 5:30 p.m., NASCAR America, NBCSN 2 a.m., NASCAR K&N Pro Series East (tape), NBCSN Friday, April 22 9 a.m., WeatherTech SportsCar Championship: Long Beach (re-air), FS1 11 a.m., NASCAR Sprint Cup Series practice, FS1 12:30 p.m., NASCAR XFINITY Series practice, FS1 2 p.m., NASCAR Race Hub: Weekend Edition, FS1 3 p.m., NASCAR XFINITY Series final practice, FS1 4 p.m., NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Coors Light Pole Qualifying, FS1 Saturday, April 23 3 a.m., NASCAR XFINITY Series practice (re-air), FS1 4:30 a.m., NASCAR XFINITY Series final practice (re-air), FS1 5:30 a.m., NASCAR Sprint Cup Series practice (re-air), FS1 7 a.m., NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Coors Light Pole Qualifying (re-air), FS1 8:30 a.m., NASCAR Sprint Cup Series practice, FS1 9:30 a.m., NASCAR XFINITY Series Coors Light Pole Qualifying, FS1 10:30 a.m., NASCAR Race Hub: Weekend Edition, FS1 11 a.m., NASCAR Sprint Cup Series final practice, FS1 Noon, NASCAR RaceDay: XFINITY , FS1 12:30 p.m., NASCAR XFINITY Series: ToyotaCare 250 , FS1 Sunday, April 24 10:30 a.m., NASCAR RaceDay, FS1 1 p.m., NASCAR Sprint Cup Series: Toyota Owners 400 , FOX Midnight, NASCAR Victory Lane, FS1 &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;nbsp;